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Chapter 1 – Processing of Materials (Timber)

Forest provides trees, and trees provide timber. Trees are the basic raw materials needed for processing timber. Timber can be processed and used for carpentry, building, and other related works. The process of converting timber into wood is called wood processing.Timber processing can describe the various procedures involved in utilizing the wooden (timber) material, in order to create substances or supplies that will be more stable and durable. The processed timber will then be used for the manufacture of various timber-based goods.


Definition of Timber; Key concepts in timber processing Calculating moisture content; Properties / qualities of a good timber; Common timber defects Treatment and preservation methods for timber; Methods of applying preservatives to timber Manufactured boards; Importance of timber treatment Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 2 – Processing of Materials (Metals)

Metal such as iron, copper and aluminum all start out as ore which must be processed to produce the actual metal. This is done in the refinery. Metal is processed from a natural solid mineral ore found beneath the earth called iron-ore. In its natural state iron-ore contains many impurities that is removed through smelting.After iron, copper and aluminum have been refined, they can be mechanically shaped to form a particular product. Different metals may also be mixed to produce alloys.


Meaning of metals; Metal processing; Metal processing methods Advantages and disadvantages of different processing methods; Types of furnaces used in making metals Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 3 – Processing of Clay, Ceramics and Glass

Chapter 4 – Processing of Plastics and Rubber

Chapter 5 – Isometric Drawing

Isometric drawing is way of presenting designs/drawings in three dimensions. In order for a design to appear three dimensional, a 30-degree angle is applied to its sides. The cube shown here, has been drawn in isometric projection. It allows the designer to draw in 3D quickly and with a reasonable degree of accuracy


Meaning of pictorial drawing; Isometric drawing; Steps involved in isometric drawing Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 6 – Oblique Drawing

Oblique drawing is a projective drawing of which the frontal lines are given in true proportions and relations and all others at suitable angles other than 90 degrees without regard to the rules of linear perspectiveOblique Drawing is a pictorial representation of an object, in which the diagram is intended to depict the perspective of objects in three dimensions. With the help of oblique drawing, we can easily draw any three-dimensional object in a two-dimensional plane like paper.


Meaning of oblique drawing; Types of oblique projections; Steps involved in oblique projection How to do simple oblique drawings Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 7 – Orthographic Projection

Orthographic Projection is a way of drawing a 3D object from different directions. Usually a front, side and plan view are drawn so that a person looking at the drawing can see all the important sides. Orthographic drawings are useful especially when a design has been developed to a stage whereby it is almost ready to manufacture.Orthographic projection is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions. It is a form of parallel projection, in which all the projection lines are orthogonal to the projection plane, resulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface.


Meaning of orthographic projection; Orthographic elevations (views) Quadrants and angles of projection Dimensions Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 8 – One-Point Perspective Drawing

Naturally, distant objects appear smaller than their real sizes e.g. the stars, the sun, the moon etc. For instance, the farther we look down a long corridor in a building, the narrower it appears to come. Perspective drawing therefore shows the pictorial representation of the apparent reduction in size of a distant object. Since architecture deals with large objects like buildings, perspective drawing becomes more useful in making architectural drawings realistic than either isometric or oblique drawing. Distant parts of a building are shown in perspective as tapering to a point, just as they appear to an observer of the actual building. Perspective projection can be in one-point, two-point or three-point perspective.Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points is a perspective drawing. 


One-point perspective drawing; Principles of one-point perspective Types of perspective drawing Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 9 – Scale and Scale Drawing

Working drawings, or orthographic projections, are drawn to scale. A scale drawing shows a real object with all its dimensions in proportion, but the object is shown bigger or smaller than it really is. The amount by which the drawing is enlarged or reduced is called scale, or the scale factor.Scale drawings are used to illustrate items that are not convenient to draw at their actual size. This may be because drawing the item at full size would be unmanageable, or would not easily fit on a single sheet of paper (such as a building), or alternatively because items need to be drawn larger than full size to adequately represent all the detail that needs to be communicated (such as a complex connection).Scale drawing is a drawing which has been reduced or enlarged from its original size, to a specified scale. The scale of drawings is described as a ratio using the notation.


Reading graduation on the meter rule; Measuring and comparing given sizes; Scale drawing Materials for scale drawing; Types of scales used in drawing Calculations involving scale drawing Scale and its uses Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 10 – Drawing of Plans and Blue-Prints

Blueprint drawings, as applied to the building construction industry – are generally used to show how a building, object, or system is to be constructed, implemented, modified, or repaired. One of the main functions of graphic symbols on construction drawings is to reference other drawings within the set.


Blue print; Plan; Building plan Types and uses of lines in technical drawing; Simple details of a building plan-areas in a building plan Elevations; Roof plan; Doors and window schedule Septic tank system; Components of a building plan Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 11 – Woodwork Project

In this chapter, you are going to learn about woodwork tools, machines and how to process woodwork projects. A woodworking machine is a machine that is intended to process wood. These machines are usually powered by electric motors and are used extensively in woodworking. They can be divided into the bigger stationary machines where the machine remains stationary while the material is moved over the machine, and hand-held power tools, where the tool is moved over the material (wood).


Woodwork machines; Woodwork project Woodwork joints Non-wood materials in woodwork projects Workshop safety rules Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 12 – Metalwork Project

Metalwork involves marking, cutting, drilling, cutting internal and external threads, filing and joining. It’s not difficult to work with metal, but like working with wood, it requires specific skills and specialized tools. In this chapter, you are going to learn about metalwork projects, tools used and how to manipulate them to fabricate simple metalwork.


Metalwork project; Production of various objects using simple metalwork machines and tools Welding; Bending and folding; Drill and drilling Making simple metalwork projects; Simple machines Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 13 – Soldering and Brazing

Soldering is a process in which two or more items are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Unlike welding, soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing, the work piece metal also does not melt, but the filler metal is one that melts at a higher temperature than in soldering. In the past, nearly all solders contained lead, but environmental and health concerns have increasingly dictated use of lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes.The major difference between brazing and soldering is the temperature at which each process takes place. Soldering takes place at a temperature below 840°F (450°C), and brazing occurs at a temperature above 840°F (450°C).


Meaning of soldering and brazing; Types of soldering; Tools required for soldering Brazing; Procedures for brazing; Types of brazing Safety precautions to observe during soldering/brazing; Mechanical fasteners Difference between soldering and brazing Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 14 – Machine Motions (Linear)

Motion is the change in position of objects. This is a common phenomenon in nature. The moon moves, we humans move from one place to another. It is also a common practice for various components of a mechanical system to move relatively to one another. Examples include: the needle of a sewing machine at work, the tyre of a moving car, etc.In this lesson, you are going to learn about the different kinds of motion in machine parts. You are going to learn that every machine is designed to take in energy, do work by the motion of its linking parts and that motion is transmitted from one point to another in a machine.


Meaning of motion; Types of motion; Linear motion; Lever arrangement to produce linear motion Transmission of linear motion Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 15 – Machine Motions (Rotary)

When an object rotates or spins about its axis, it is said to be exhibiting rotatory motion. The rotary motion includes the physical motion of a certain object which is spinning on an axis of its own. Rotary motion is analyzed in a similar way as linear motion. When we say that a certain object has uniform rotational motion, uniform circular motion, or uniform rotary motion, it means that the direction in which the object is moving doesn’t change.


Meaning of rotary motion; Types of rotary motion Principles of application and examples of rotary motion; Control of rotary motion Types of car engines; Conversion of rotary to linear motion Summary and Evaluation

Chapter 16 – Simple Electrical Wiring

Electrical wiring, or circuitry is the basis for anything that uses electricity. Some wiring, such as simple circuit on a torch, is very simple. Others, like electrical wiring on a modern aircraft is complex. Electrical wiring can be carried out in buildings, vehicles, machine plants, appliances and equipment. In this chapter, we will be considering electrical installation in houses. 


Meaning of electrical wiring; Electrical wiring and the flow of electric current Schematic diagram of electric circuits (parallel and series); Wiring tools and materials Fault detection (definition; trouble shooting); Tools for fault detection; Safety requirements in electrical wiring Summary and Evaluation